Physical features and topography
The district may be divided into two parts, the northern hilly areas and the southern plain. The major part of these hills are in Gadoon area in the north-east. These are the continuation of the Mahaban hills. The other important hills are situated in north-western corner of the district. these are locally called as the Naranji hills. The height of these hills varies between 750 to 1400 meters above sea level.
There are also a few other small isolated hills. The most important of which is located south of swabi town.other hills are in the south, along the border with Nowshera district,which are the part of Khattak hills, north of the Kabul river.From the foot of the hills. The plain runs down, at first with a steep slope, and then gently to the lower levels, towards the Kabul river. The lower southern half of the district has its slope towards the river Indus.
The plain area of the district is interseeted by numerous streams and many smaller ravines. The important stream is the Narrangi Khawar, which flows from Narranji hills in a south-western direction joining the Kalapani stream in Mardan district. Another important stream is Badri Khawar which flows the north close to Swabi town and joins the Indus river near village Hund. The Indus river flows along the southern boundary of the district.
The arable soil of swabi district have developed either from river alluvium or loess plain.Texture of river alluvium ranges from sandy loam to loamy sand, loam approaching clay loam. The soil of loess plains ranges in texture from silt loam to silty clay loam or silty clay.
The soil is irrigated from general cropping with canals supplemented by well-irrigation. Some parts where irrigation is not feasible, are used for dry-farming of wheat gram and groundnuts.
The swabi district exhibits the following rock unit,
1- Salkhala Formation,
2- Manki Formation,
3- Sobra Formation,
4- Tanawal Formation,
5- Ambar formation,
6- Misri Banda formation,
7- Panjpir Formation,
8- Granite and Sills/Dykes
1- Salkhala formation:
The salkhala formation is the oldest unit of the area which comprises chlorite quartzite-mica schist, graphitic schist, calcareous schist, marble and quartzite. The formation has been assigned pre Cambrian age.
2. Manki Formation
The Manki formation is characterized by phyllites, Slates and subordinate gray wakes, limestone and quartzite lenses. It is assigned a Pre-Cambrian age.
3. Sobra Formation:
This formation consists mainly of limestone with subordinate quartzite and sandstone. The age of formation is Pre-Cambrian.
4. Tanawal Formation:
This formation is quite thick and is comprised predominately of quartzite, quartzes sandstone and subordicnate argillite. The age is pre cambrain.
5. Ambar Formation:
The formation consists of the dolomites limestone with intercalations of quartzite and phyllite. It has been assigned a Cambrian age.
6. Misri Banda Quartzite:
The formation is dominantly consisted of quartzite with subordinate argillite and lenses of conglomerate. The age of the formation is early to middle or dovician.
7. Panjpir Formation:
This formation is dominantly comprised argillite, phyllite and subordinate lenses of limestone and quartzite. The formation has been assigned silunan age.
8. Granite Formation:
In addition the area shows some granite rocks and dolerites sills / dykes at places which have been given Permian to carboniferous age.
The district swabi is enriched in natural resources. Marble, Sandstone, Gravel are available in large quantity. The same are leased out to the interesting parties by the directorate of industries as per government policy and thus a lot of money is going to the public exchequer each year.
The limestone, Sandstone, and phyllite/slates are common economic rocks of the area. The limestone is used for crushers and road construction whereas the sandstone and slates are used for houses.
The area has a variety of fauna consisting of the following:
History of Yousafzai
Yousafzai is the domination tribe of swabi district whose ancestors came from Ghora Marghai. The place is somewhere in western Afghanistan. Yousafzai first occupied Peshawar and gradually they occupied the present territories. Those who occupied the plain areas became subject to Delhi emperors. Razar or Rajar and Utman are the two main sections of yousafzai living in swabi district. Yousafzai generally have robust built full stature with fair complexion. Other tribes inhabiting in Swabi district are Gadoon who are Sub divided into Salar and Mansoor tribes and Khattak inhabiting in Jahangira, Tordher, Beka and Lahore ( a sub –division in district swabi, NWFP). Other tribes are Moarangi who are living along Indus river and earn their livelihood from Indus river by fishing and running boats and canoes between Panjab and Frontier.
Races and Tribes
Most of the inhabitants are Yousafzai. The Major tribes in the district are as under:
4-Khattak (in small number)
All people belong to Muslim Sunni school of though. A few Christians and Hindu families are also residing in Swabi district. The Muslims are staunch followers of the religion. There are many religious institutions in Swabi where students from all over the provinces are seeking religious education.
River and Streams
The famous river Indus rises from the north-east mountains of Gadoon area at Satkhaiter flowing with the eastern and southern boundary of the district and entering the Nowshera and Attock districts at Khund.
The important Nullahs of the district are Badrai Nullah, Narangi Nullah and Shagai Nullah.
Flows from the north close to Swabi town and joins the Indus river near Hund.
Entering the district at Narangi from the north-east mountains passes through Nawa killi, Turlandi villages and leaving the district at Ismaila village enters the Mardan district.
Enters at Chack Nodeh of Swabi district flowing through Dagai, Yar Husain villages and leaving the district at village Dobian.
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